Appendix B

A comparison of alphabets

The purpose of this comparison is to give evidence that there was a relation between:

    A and the Hebrew Aleph A,

    O and the He' O,

    U and the Hebrew Waw U,

    I and the Hebrew Yodh I and between

    E and the Hebrew Ayin E.

This evidence can be shown by (50):

    1) the similarity of the forms of letters in different alphabets

    2) the similarity of sounds of letters of different alphabets

    3) the same position-number in various alphabets

    4) the number-meanings of the letters


I. The relation of A to Aleph:


Aleph is the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet. Its’ relation to A [a:] is very obvious:

the Hebrew Aleph A in German-Hebrew ("Weiberdeutsch") A is spoken [a].

Hebrew Written ("Hebräische Schreibschrift"): B and C is spoken [a].

Estrangelo Aleph: D is spoken [a].

In various writings in the east of Palestine:

Hauranitic: E F G H I J K L M N + spoken [a]

Nabathaic: O P Q R S T + spoken [a]

Palmyrenian: U V W + spoken [a]

Malabarian-Syrian: X + spoken [a]

Mandaic: Y Z [ + spoken [a]

compare also the Greek alphabet, the first letter is Alpha (similar to Aleph) and is spoken [a]

In this respect also compare the first letter A of the Latin and derived German alphabet: it is spoken [a].


II. The relation of O to He’:

The similarity of the form of an O (a circle) and the position as the 5th letter of an alphabet or of a letter spoken [h]:

Demotic: \ ] + spoken [h]

Coptic: ^ + spoken [h]

Ancient Egyptian: _  + spoken [h]

Canaanitic: ` + spoken [h]

Aramaic: a + spoken [h]

Rashi: b + spoken [h]

Hauranitic: c  + spoken [h]

Nabathaic: d + spoken [h]

Chaldean: e f + spoken [h]

Syrian: m n + spoken [h]

Malabarian-Syrian: g + spoken [h]

Cufic: h i j + spoken [h]

Turkish Rika’a: k + spoken [h]

Turkish Diwany: l o + spoken [h]

Persian Neskhi: p q + spoken [h]

Modern Persian : r + spoken [h]

Modern Arabic: s + spoken [h]


The connection of the letter spoken [h] with a vowel is also very obvious:

Iberian: u v   spoken [h] with Greek Eta H spoken [e] or [æ];

Ancient Greek: u w  spoken [e] or [h];

The form w is similar to a circle, too: compare circle O;

Old Italic: u w v x y z spoken [h] or [x]; Compare circle x with O;

Compare { | ~ spoken [e] with w y spoken [h] and ~ with the Old Hebrew and Canaanititc He’ } spoken [h];


The relation of the form H with Eta (Greek) is more a proof for the fact that the Hebrew Cheth (the 8th character of the Hebrew alphabet) has a connection with the vowel Eta. Compare the similarity of the term Cheth and the term Eta. Yet this shows how easy the development from a vowel to a consonant and vice versa is possible. H is the 8th character in the Latin alphabet (the same in German and English) and Eta is the 8th character in the Greek alphabet when we insert the Digamma at the 6th place. Cheth [x] developed to an H [h] and to an Eta [æ]. The form of the characters O and H is very similar. Also the form of o and e is very similar which might have developed from ‚ and a w.


A further connection between O and He’ is the following:

Tironian: † ‡ ˆ + spoken [o] compared with Demotic ] and Persian r;

This is also shown by the relation between Greek O (Omikron) and W (Omega);


The number 5 is shown by the Hebrew He’ and also by the position as 5th letter in other alphabets and by numbers which strongly resemble an O:

Persian: number 5 = ƒ „ ;

Chaldean: number 5 = t ;

Arabic: number 5 = … ;

Neskhi: number 5 = • ;

Cufic: number 5 = h i j ;


III. The relation of U to Waw:

Chaldean: ‰ + spoken [w] and [u], the 6th letter in the alphabet;

Syrian: Š ‹ + spoken [w] and [u], the 6th letter in the alphabet;


IV. The relation of I and Yodh:

Hebrew Current Writing ("Hebräische Currentschrift"): Œ + spoken [i] and [j];

Spanish Levantinic:   + spoken [i] and [j];

German-Hebrew ("Weiberdeutsch"):  Ž + spoken [i] and [j];

Hebrew Written ("Hebräische Schreibschrift"):    + spoken [i] and [j].


V. The relation of E to Ayin:

Hebrew Current Writing ("Hebräische Currentschrift"):   + spoken [e], the 16th letter in the alphabet

Spanish Levantinic:  ‘ + spoken [e], the 16th letter in the alphabet

German-Hebrew ("Weiberdeutsch"):  ’ + spoken [e], the 16th letter in the alphabet

Hebrew Written ("Hebräische Schreibschrift"): “ ” + spoken [e], the 16th letter in the alphabet;

Palmyrenian: €  + spoken [a], a is a vowel!


(50) the comparison of alphabets was made using the following books:

Carl Faulmann, Schriftzeichen und Alphabete aller Zeiten und Völker - Reprint nach der Wiener Ausgabe 1880, Neuausgabe 1995, Augustus Verlag Augsburg.

Farhad Sobhani, Persisches Lehr- und Lesebuch, 3rd edition 1971, Walter de Gryter, Berlin a.o., p. 12.

Walther Hinz, Persisch - Praktischer Sprachführer, 5th edition 1971, Walter de Gryter, Berlin a.o., p. 28.

Lorenz Kropfitsch a. Georg Krotkoff, Langenscheidts Taschenwörterbuch Arabisch, 2nd edition 1999, Langenscheidt, Berlin a.o., p. 18, 564.


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